Serial Endosymbiosis

Cellular evolution from microbes to eukaryotes.

Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria

Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria -- Jeon and Jeon 117 (4): 535 -- Journal of Cell Science: Entrez PubMed: "The xD strain of Amoeba proteus arose from the D strain by spontaneous infection of X-bacteria (Jeon and Lorch, 1967), and xD amoebae are now dependent on their symbionts for survival. Each xD amoeba contains about 42,000 symbionts within symbiosomes, and established xD amoebae die if their symbionts are removed. Newly infected xD amoebae become dependent on X-bacteria within 18 months (about 200 cell generations) (Jeon and Ahn, 1978)...."
Jeon TJ, Jeon KW. Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria. J Cell Sci. 2004 Feb 1;117(Pt 4):535-43. Epub 2004 Jan 6.

Also: Free Full Text articles bold:
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. . . endosymbiotic union began 10/06/06